Cardiovascular disease or heart diseases are a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins).
The cardiovascular diseases have a statistic of 1/3 of all global deaths, this is more than cancer or diabetes. The percentage of premature death in developed countries is 4% and the rest of countries are 42%.
The main causes of cardiovascular disease:
1. Atherosclerosis - progressive deposition of residual accumulation as cholesterol and cellular debris in the arterial wall of blood vessels that run through the heart and brain. Most often atherosclerosis occurs after myocardial infarction and strokes. Residual accumulations lead to the formation of lesions or atheromatous. Over time, these lesions enlarge and dilate, leading to narrowing of the arteries and, therefore, the amount of blood that flows through vessels is shrinking. Blood vessels can harden and lose flexibility.
2. Due to inadequate blood flow to the heart and brain, may cause cardiovascular problems such as angina. More pronounced limitations may cause serious cardiovascular events, including heart attacks and strokes.
3. Heart attacks and strokes can occur due to dilatation of arteries. Arteries can break, developing blood clots that can completely block the vessels.
Signs and symptoms:
There are certain characteristic symptoms resemble or cardiovascular disease, the first sign is, in most cases, a heart attack or stroke.
Types of cardiovascular disease
1. Coronary heart disease refers to inadequate functioning of the heart muscle and blood circulation that supplies the heart muscle improper.
Coronary heart disease is a disease of the arteries caused by the residual accumulation on the walls of the arteries supplying the heart.
Symptoms: Angina pectoris (chest pain) and myocardial infarction (heart attack).
2. Cardiomyopathy (heart muscle disease) - is the deterioration of heart muscle function. People with cardiomyopathy are often exposed to the risk of arrhythmia and / or sudden cardiac death.
Types of cardiomyopathy
1. Extrinsic cardiomyopathies
• Ischemic heart disease
• Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy
• Congenital malformations of the circulatory system
2. Nutritional Diseases affecting the heart
• Ischemic Cardiomyopathy
• Hypertensive Cardiomyopathy
• Valvular cardiomyopathy
• Inflammatory Cardiomyopathy
• Cardiomyopathy secondary to a systemic metabolic disease
3. Cardiomyopathy with dilatation
4. Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
5. Vascular Diseases
• Artery and PAD
• Aortic dissection
• Pulmonary Hypertension
6. Ischemic heart disease - low supply of blood to the heart muscle.
7. Hypertensive heart disease
• Left ventricular hypertrophy
• Coronary heart disease
• Heart failure
• Heart Arrhythmia
8. Inflammatory heart disease:
• Endocarditis - inflammation of the inner layer of the heart namely the heart valves.
• Cardiomegaly inflammatory
• Myocarditis - inflammation of the myocardium.
9. Cardiac valvulopathy is processes that affect one or more valves of the heart. Mainly there are four valves that are affected by valvulopathies: aortic and tricuspid valve on the right side of the heart and aortic and mitral valve on the left side of the heart.
Risk factors for cardiovascular disease
Modifiable risk factors (which can be treated or influenced)
- Dyslipidemia (abnormal cholesterol levels)
- Lack of physical activity
- Diabetic kidney disease
Not Modifiable risk factors (which cannot be influenced or treated)
- Age (> 55 years for men,> 65 for women)
- Family history of premature cardiovascular disease
Treating cardiovascular diseases
Pharmacological interventions can help in treating almost all types of cardiovascular disease, including hypertension, high cholesterol and diabetes.
Classes of drugs for treating cardiovascular disease types:
- Anti-platelet aggregation
- Oral anticoagulants
- Statins (lipid-lowering medication)
- Cholesterol absorption inhibitors
- Oral hypoglycemic agents